Exercise 1

Complete the following sentences and translate them into English.

१. अश्वाः तृणम् कादन्ति, पुष्यन्ति, तुष्यन्ति
    अश्वास्तृणं कादन्ति, पुष्यन्ति, तुष्यन्ति
The horses are eating grass, and being nourished, and enjoying it.
The horses are eating, being nourished by, and enjoying grass
२. दासः कनकश्चोरयति नृपश्च दासं दृशति तुदति च |
the servants steals the gold, and the king reveals the servant and strikes him.
३. अहं कमलानि दिशामि, त्वं च तिनि न पशयसि |
I show you the lotuses, and you do not see them.
४. काकौ फलानि चिन्तयतः, नराश्च तौ काके तुदन्ति |
the two crows think about the fruit, and the men strike those two crows.
५. वृक्षाः पर्वतमभितो नशयन्ति | दासश्च जनान् कथयन्ति एव “पर्वतो नश्यति सर्वतः” इति |
    जना वदन्ति “पर्वतो न नश्यति, वृक्षा एव नश्यन्ति" |
The trees near the mountain are dying and the servant tells the people only “the whole mountain is dying” – the people say “the mountain is not dying, only the trees are dying”.
६. जना न अन्नं पिबन्ति, न वा पात्राणि खादान्ति |
people do not drink food, nor do they eat vessels.
७. नृपो ग्रामं विशति, दासा उभयतो धावन्ति, जनाश्च नृपं पूजयन्ति
The king enters the village, servants run to both sides, and people worship the king

Exercise 2

Join the following simple sentences and form a complex sentence

  • १. रामः च अश्वःच गच्छन्ति
  • २. रामः गच्छति पतति च
  • ३. रामः फलं च मांसं च खादति

Exercise 3

Change the emphasis of the following sentences as directed by placing the particle एव in the right place

  • १. रामः एव फलं खादति
  • २. अश्वः तृणं एव पश्यति
  • ३. बालः काकं त्वजतिएव

Exercise 4

Change the following into negative sentiences

  • १. अश्वाः पत्राणि वा तृणनि वा न खादन्ति
  • २. जना मां पश्यन्ति, सर्वतश्च न धावन्ति | अहं तान् पश्यामि, न तृष्यामि च |
  • ३. न अहं कनकं दीव्यामि, त्वं च कनकं चिन्तयसि न तुष्यसि च

There are different emphases possible here

Exercise 5

१. बाला नराण् पश्यति |
बाला नरान् पश्यन्ति |
ṇa can’t be word final.
bālā is nom. pl. (with sandhi from bālāḥ) so verb must also be pl. (or vice versa)
२. अश्वः तृणाणि खादन्ति |
अश्वः तृणानि खादति |
intervention of ṇa cancels the na -> ṇa sandhi.
aśvaḥ is nom sg so verb must be sg, also (or vice versa).
Could also say that tṛṇaṃ could be in acc. sg. grass rather than grasses.