Exercise 1

Translate the following sentences into English and change them to gerund- and/or infinitive constructions if possible.

१. यदाश्वास्तृणं खादन्ति, तदा ते पुष्यन्ति
When the horses eat grass, then they are nourished
तृणं खादित्वा अश्वाः पुष्यन्ति
having eaten grass, the horses are nourished
अश्वाः पोष्टुं तृणं खादन्ति
The horses eat grass to be nourished
२.यदा दासः कनकञ्चोरयति, तदा नृपो दासन्तुदति
When the servants steals the gold, the king beats the servant.
2 agents so no ger. or inf. construction.
३. यदाहं कमलान्यदिशम्, तदा त्वं काकमपश्यः
When I showed you lotuses, you (only) saw the crow.
2 agents so no ger or inf construction.
४. यदा जना मां पश्येयुस्तदा ते सर्वतो धावेयुः
When people will see me, then everywhere they should run
मां दुष्ट्वा जना सर्वतो धावेयुः
having seen me, people everywhere should run.
An infinitive construction would be unlikely.
५. यदा बालाः पर्वतं प्रत्यधावन् , तदा तेऽश्राम्यन् ।
when the boys ran to the mountain, then they were tired out.
बालाः पर्वतं प्रति धावित्वा तेऽश्राम्यन्
or पर्वतं प्रत्यधावत्वा बाला अश्राम्यन्
having run to the mountain the boys were weary.
An infinitive construction would be unlikely.
६. यदाहं कनकमदीव्यम् , तदा त्वमतुष्यः
when I gambled the gold, then you were pleased.
2 agents so no ger or inf construction.
७. यदा जना नृपं पश्यन्ति तदा ते तं पूजयन्ति
When the people see the king then they worship him
नृपं दृष्ट्वा जना तं पूजयन्ति
having seen the king people worship him
जना पश्यन्ति नृपं तं पूजयितुम्
People see the king to worship him (bit of a stretch)
८. यदा जना ईश्वरस्य बलं चिन्तयन्ति तदा ते ईश्वरं नमन्ति ।
When people consider the people of the Lord, then they worship the Lord
ईश्वरस्य बलं चिन्तयित्वा जना तं नमन्ति
Having considered the power of the Lord, people worship him.
९. यदा नृपः काव्यं लिखति, तदा स सुखं विन्दति
When the king writes a poem then he finds happiness
काव्यं लिखित्वा नृपः सुखं विन्दति
Having written a poem the king finds happiness
सुखं वेदितुं नृपः काव्यं लिखति
to find happiness the king writes a poem
१०. यदा दासो वनं गच्छेत् , तदा स वृक्षान् कृन्तेत् ।
When the servant would go to the forest, then he should cut trees.
वनं गत्वा दासो वृक्षान् कृन्तेत्
Having gone to the forest, the servant should cut trees.
वृक्षान् कर्तितुं दासो वनं गच्छेत्
To cut trees the servant should go to the forest.