Exercise 2

Transform into passive the first 10 sentences in ex.1 and 2. of Lesson 12. Make sure you use the appropriate gerund or infinitive forms in your passive sentences.

१. यदाश्वास्तृणं खादन्ति, तदा ते पुष्यन्ति
When the horses eat grass, then they are nourished
यदा तृणं खाद्यते तदा अश्वः पुष्यते
When grass is eaten, horses are nourished.
तृणेनाश्वः पुष्यते
Horses are nourished by grass.
२. यदा दासः कनकञ्चोरयति, तदा नृपो दासन्तुदति
When the servants steals the gold, the king beats the servant.
यदा दासेन कनकञ्चोर्यते, तदा नृपेन दासस्तुद्यते
When the gold is stolen by the servant, then the servant is beaten by the king.
३. यदाहं कमलान्यदिशम्, तदा त्वं काकमपश्यः
When I showed you the lotuses, you only saw the crow
माय कमलान्यदिश्ये, त्वया काकमदृश्यथाः
Shown lotuses by me, only a crow was seen by you.
४. यदा जना मां पश्येयुस्तदा ते सर्वता धावेयुः
When people see me, then they should everywhere run.
यदाहं जवैः धृश्यन्त तदा तैः सर्वताः धाव्यते
When I am seen by the people, then they everywhere they should be running.
५. यदा बालाः पर्वतं प्रत्यधावन्, तदा ते ऽश्राम्यन्
When the boys ran towards the mountain, then they were tired
यदा बालैः पर्वतं प्रत्यधाव्यते, तदा तैरश्राम्यन्त
When the mountain was run to by the boys, then they experienced tiredness.
६. यदाहं कनकमदीव्यम्, तदा त्वमतुष्यः
When I gambled the gold, then you were pleased
यदा मया नृपं पश्यन्ति तदा त्वयातुष्यत
When the gold is gambled by me, then pleasure was experienced by you
७. यदा जना नृपं पश्यन्ति तदा ते तं पूजयन्ति
When the people saw the king, they worshipped him
यदा जनैर्नृपः पश्यन्ते, तदा तै स पूजयन्ते
When the king was seen by the people, he was worshipped by them.
८. यदा जना ईश्वरस्य बलं चिन्तयन्ति तदा ते ईश्वरं नमन्ति
When people consider the power of the Lord, they salute the Lord.
यदा जनैरीश्वरस्य बलं चिन्तयन्ते तदा तैः ईश्वरो नम्यन्ते
When the power of the Lord is considered by people, the Lord is worshipped by them.
९. यदा नृपः काव्यं लिखति, तदा स सुखं विन्दति ।
When the king writes poetry, then he finds happiness
यदा नृपेण काव्यो लिख्यते, तदा तेन सुखं विद्यते ।
When poetry is written by the king, then happiness is found by him.
१०. यदा दासो वनं गच्छेत्, तदा स वृक्षान् कृन्तेत् ।
When the servant goes to the forest, then he should cut trees.
यदा दासेन वनो गम्येत, तदा तेन वृक्षाः कृत्येत ।
When there is going to the forest by the servant, then by him there should be cutting of trees.

Exercise 3

Translate into English

१. न पात्रेण जलं पीयते ।
Water is drunk from the bowl
२. दासेन सह नृपेण गम्यते
The king together with his servant is going
(literally going is done by the king with the servant)
३. नृपेण दासाय कनकं दीयते
The servant is given gold by the king.
४. जनकेन पुत्राय कुप्यते
The father is getting angry with his son.
५. दासेन ग्रामो गम्यते
The servant is going to the village (lit. Going to the village is done by the servant)
६. मया नृपस्य दासो दृश्यते
the servant of the king is seen by me or I am looking at the servant of the king
७. मित्रस्य काव्यं दृष्ट्वा नृपेण तुष्यते
Having seen the poetry of his friend the king was pleased.
८. तेनाश्वेन कूपे पत्यते
The horse is falling in the well
९. मांसं विना शुगालैर्न जीव्यते
By the jackals there is no living without meat
१०. गृहस्य पुरतो दासेन वीरस्य गुणा अधोष्यन्त
The virtues of the hero were proclaimed by the servant in front of the house.
११. दासेन वनं गम्यतां वृक्षास्च कृत्यन्ताम्
Let the servant be going to the forest and cutting trees.
१२. नृपस्य कुते दासेन प्रासादस्योपरि कुसुमानि फलानि च नीयन्ताम्
For the sake of the king, let flowers and fruits be carried by the servant to the top of the palace.
१३. हे तात, एतानि फलानि जलेन क्षालयित्वा भक्ष्यन्ताम्
O father, having washed these fruits with water, they should be eaten.
१४. नृपस्य दासेन स मुनिरदृश्यत
The sage is seen by the servant of the king
१५. हे दास - मया तव नृपस्य गुरुणल भूयते
O servant – I am the teacher of the king.
This is tricky! Imagine starting in the active voice: ahaṃ tava nṛpasya gurur bhavāmi. Now when the verb changes to passive, taking the 3rd person singular because it is intransitive; and the agent and pronoun 'guruḥ' and 'ahaṃ' change from the nominative into the instrumental case: guruṇa and mayā . One could leave out "tava nṛpasya" and the sentence would still makes sense. There is no literal English equivalent although something like “by me is the state of being the teacher of the king” approximates it.
१६. भार्यया भक्त्या स गुरुरनम्यत
The guru is saluted with devotion by the wife.
१७. जनकेन शिशुस्ताड्येत
The child should be beaten by the father
१८. यद्यपि भार्ययाहं निन्द्ये, तथापि मया सा न कदापि निन्द्यते
Even though I should be accused by my wife, she is never accused by me.
१९. या नारी मया चिन्त्यते तयाहं न चिनतये
The woman who is thought of my me, I am not thought of by her.
२०. त्वया मरणं न बुध्यते, न वा जीवनमिति मुनिनाभाष्यत
“neither death nor life are known by you” is said by the sage.